Asked by Temiloluwa Popoola on Feb 29, 2024



___________________occurs when individuals have similar ability on the construct being assessed but score differently due to format of specific items.

A) Content bias
B) Criterion bias
C) Differential item functioning
D) Motivation

Differential Item Functioning

A phenomenon where different groups of test-takers respond differently to a particular test item, not due to differences in the trait being measured but due to some other characteristic.


An abstraction that cannot be seen directly but is valued because it helps organize the myriad of potential observations in the real world.

Content Bias

A condition which occurs when testing materials are more familiar to one group than another.

  • Recognize the phenomenon of differential item functioning and its implications for test fairness.

Verified Answer

Sierra Taylor

Feb 29, 2024

Final Answer :
Explanation :
Differential item functioning (DIF) occurs when individuals with similar abilities on a construct get different scores on specific test items that are not related to the construct. This is often due to the item format or wording, and can result in bias in the interpretation of scores. Content bias refers to the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure, while criterion bias occurs when the standards for success on a test differ for different groups of people. Motivation is not directly related to this type of bias in test scores.